To obtain high performance from a modern phonograph system, the tonearm and pickup cartridge must be properly adjusted to within a few thousands of an inch.
There are several alignment gauges available to adjust overhang and offset.
To adjust cartridge azimuth (Axial Tilt), it has been necessary to use lab quality equipment and a test record. Azimuth may be adjusted using an oscilloscope, AC voltmeter, or computer program. These methods can be expensive and time-consuming.